The theory of Atomism in Indian Philosophy has been found in three schools called Bauddha, Jaina, and Vaisesika. The Atomic theory of Vaisesika is one of the oldest philosophical schools in the country. The founder of the school Vaisesika is Maharsi Kanad. The Vaisesika Philosophy involves Metaphysics and focuses mainly on seven categories, which are called Padartha.
As per the theory, the world comprises seven categories such as substance, quality, action, particular, universal, inherence, and non-being. The substance is said to be the material cause of the composite object and is of nine types such as earth, water, air, fire, ether, space, time, soul, and mind. Therefore, the Vaisesika system gives importance to both material and spiritual substances. The first four substances mentioned above along with the mind are atomic in nature.
As per Vaisesika’s Philosophy, the atom is the tiniest, indivisible and eternal portion of the composite thing as it does not have any cause. The atoms of earth, water, air, and fire consist as the base of the whole perceptible universe, however, the mind does not. As the atom is eternal when the world is dissolved, the matter is not destroyed. At this dissolution of the world stage, the atom or anu, which is actually the most important part of the matter remains passive and motionless.
As per Maharsi Kanad, the atom can be of two states, which are complete rest and a state of motion. Thus, we can say that atoms have their own individuality and are independent in nature.