Phenomenology is a philosophical movement that started in the 20th century.
The main goal of phenomenology was to investigate directly and describe the phenomenal experiences as it is without adding any theories or explanations and no other preconceptions and assumptions.
Swiss German mathematician and philosopher Johann Heinrich Lambert used phenomenology as a part of his theory of knowledge, which differentiated truth from illusion and error.
Thus, phenomenology can be said as the study of structures of consciousness, which is experienced from the first-person viewpoint.
Phenomenology is different from other important disciplines in philosophy like ontology, epistemology, logic, and ethics.
As a discipline, phenomenology is different and has been used in various ways for many centuries until it came into recognition and mentioned in the 20th century in the works of Husserl, Heidegger, Sartre, Merleau-Ponty, among others.
In the modern philosophy of mind, phenomenological issues such as intentionality, consciousness, qualia, and first-person viewpoint have been notable.
Phenomenology has been recognized in philosophy in two manners, one is as a disciplinary field and second as a movement in the history of philosophy.
Therefore, phenomenology can be said as the study of phenomena or appearances of things as they seem.
Phenomenology thus, is a study of perception, thought, imagination, emotion, desire, social activity, linguistic activity, memory, and different types of experiences that a human being goes through.
The motive of phenomenology is to explain the meaning of what was experienced and how it was experienced from the first viewpoint.
Typical phenomenological experiences one goes through in day to day life:
I see there a couple sitting nearby the Marina beach enjoying the sight of the sunset.
I hear that airplane taking off when I am walking inside the airport.
I am thinking that phenomenology is different from psychology.
I wish that summer doesn’t come with lots of heatwaves this year.
I imagine an angel coming into my dream to give me strength.
I intend to finish my MA Philosophy assignments by this month.
I walk carefully as the workers have kept all their technical stuff on my way home.
I am searching for words to calm myself in a heated argument.
Phenomenological method to understand the concept of knowledge:
According to phenomenology, learning or gaining knowledge does not happen only out of experience but one has to understand the experience as life-worldly happening.
Learning creates an impact on the learner through experiential processes of learning.
Learning or gaining knowledge can also be said to provide abilities to improve the current ways of feeling, thinking, and acting. It will also help build new skills and abilities.
For example, a cookbook can have hundreds of delicious recipes that guide a layman on how to cook good dishes at home. Reading the menu and list of items required to prepare the dish and even memorizing them won’t help much unless an individual has actually been in the kitchen and practiced it in reality. Thus, phenomenology i.e. experience-based learning would help a person cook well than only reading or watching the videos on cooking.