The Vedas are basically texts of Hindu religion, they are called Sanatan Dharma, which means Eternal Journey or Eternal Order. The term Veda means knowledge or information and in the Vedas, it is said that the main knowledge about the underlying reason and personal response to existence is conveyed. The Vedas are the oldest religious works on the entire planet. They are prevalently known as scriptures that talk majorly about the Divine or commonly called God. Vedas are not said to be about a person or narrate any sort of historical moments. In fact, Vedas are believed to have existed before 1500 BCE and talks about the knowledge gained by the saints when they were in deep meditative states. The Vedas are said to be conveyed from a master to a student in an oral format for many generations until it was thought to be presented in the written format between c. 1500 to c. 500 BCE, which is also known as the Vedic period in India. Since Vedas were mainly narrated in oral format by masters to the student, they were considered as Shruti in Hinduism, which means what is heard was preserved by the students. Vedas are of four types called as Rig Veda, Sama Veda, Yajur Veda, and Atharva Veda.
Each of these Vedas is more divided into types of text included within them:
- Aranyakas – rituals, observances
- Brahmanas – reviews on said rituals
- Samhitas – blessings, prayers, mantras
- Upanishads – philosophical stories and dialogues
As noted, followers of Sanatan Dharma understand the Vedas have always survived. Scholars Forrest E. Baird and Raeburn S. Heimbeck note:
“Of all their many sacred texts, Hindus accord supernatural origin only to the Vedas. These four books exclusively are trusted to reveal the essential knowledge of life. Such knowledge, Hindus hold, has existed eternally in the form of vibrations sounding throughout the universe. These elusive vibrations remained undetected until certain Indian sages equipped with spiritual hearing finally heard and formulated them in the Sanskrit language, beginning about 3,200 years ago.”