Scientism is all about supporting science and considering it as the best or only goal through which the society has to figure out normative and epistemological values. The term scientism is used critically in a general sense. It is suggesting an unfair application of science in conditions that are regarded as not agreeable to the purpose of the scientific method or similar scientific norms.
In the philosophy of science, the term scientism usually refers to a review of the more ultimate expressions of logical positivism. Scientism has been used by social scientists and philosophers like Friedrich Hayek, Karl Popper, Mary Midgley, Hilary Putnam, and Tzvetan Todorov. They explain the formal approval of the scientific methodology and decline of all knowledge to only that which is measured or affirmative.
Communicative action is considered to be a co-operative action in sociology initiated by individuals based upon mutual discussion and argumentation. Communicative Action term was founded in the book The Theory of Communicative Action, written by German philosopher and sociologist Jurgen Habermas.
Communicative action for Habermas promotes the human potential for rationality. Communicative action is an action that has its basis upon a deliberative process wherein two or more persons interact and co-ordinate their action based upon accepted solutions of the situation. Communicative action is differentiated by Habermas from various forms of action, such as instrumental action, which is absolute goal-oriented behavior. Communicative action has the capacity to indicate the language used to communicate propositional truth, regularizing value, or individual self-expression.
In a philosophical context, an assumption is something that is unsaid or presupposition. An individual makes a statement and the other person objects to that to make something else believable. Philosophers are known to find out assumptions made by other people. It is better to have lesser assumptions as there is less for the other person to object to. An assumption might be more ineffective as it has a meager ontological commitment, or it avoids needing a reasoned proposition or relationship, or because it is just more manageable. In simpler words, the assumption is a thing that is being agreed upon as true or sure to happen, without evidence.